Gender stereotypes of personality: universal and accurate?

Löckenhoff, Corinna E. and Chan, Wayne and McCrae, Robert R. and De Fruyt, Filip and Jussim, Lee J. and De Bolle, Marleen and Costa Jr., Paul T. and Sutin, Angelina R. and Realo, Anu and Allik, Jüri and Nakazato, Katsuharu and Shimonaka, Yoshiko and Hřebíčková, Martina and Graf, Sylvie and Yik, Michelle and Ficková, Emília and Brunner-Sciarra, Marina and Leibovich de Figueora, Nora and Schmidt, Vanina and Ahn, Chang-kyu and Ahn, Hyun-nie and Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E. and Siuta, Jerzy and Szmigielska, Barbara and Cain, Thomas R. and Crawford, Jarret T. and Mastor, Khairul Anwar and Rolland, Jean-Pierre and Nansubuga, Florence and Miramontez, Daniel R. and Benet-Martínez, Veronica and Rossier, Jérôme and Bratko, Denis and Marušić, Iris and Halberstadt, Jamin and Yamaguchi, Mami and Knežević, Goran and Martin, Thomas A. and Gheorghiu, Mirona and Smith, Peter B. and Barbaranelli, Claudio and Wang, Lei and Shakespeare-Finch, Jane and Lima, Margarida P. and Klinkosz, Waldemar and Sekowski, Andrzej and Alcalay, Lidia and Simonetti, Franco and Avdeyeva, Tatyana V. and Pramila, V. S. and Terracciano, Antonio (2014) Gender stereotypes of personality: universal and accurate? Journal of cross-cultural psychology , 45 (5). pp. 675-694. ISSN 0022-0221 ( Print ), 1552-5422 (Online)

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Numerous studies have documented subtle but consistent sex differences in self-reports and observer-ratings of five-factor personality traits, and such effects were found to show well-defined developmental trajectories and remarkable similarity across nations. In contrast, very little is known about perceived gender differences in five-factor traits in spite of their potential implications for gender biases at the interpersonal and societal level. In particular, it is not clear how perceived gender differences in five-factor personality vary across age groups and national contexts and to what extent they accurately reflect assessed sex differences in personality. To address these questions, we analyzed responses from 3,323 individuals across 26 nations (mean age = 22.3 years, 31% male) who were asked to rate the five-factor personality traits of typical men or women in three age groups (adolescent, adult, and older adult) in their respective nations. Raters perceived women as slightly higher in openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness as well as some aspects of extraversion and neuroticism. Perceived gender differences were fairly consistent across nations and target age groups and mapped closely onto assessed sex differences in self- and observer-rated personality. Associations between the average size of perceived gender differences and national variations in sociodemographic characteristics, value systems, or gender equality did not reach statistical significance. Findings contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of gender stereotypes of personality and suggest that perceptions of actual sex differences may play a more important role than culturally based gender roles and socialization processes.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Language: English.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Personality, gender/sex roles, developmental: child/adolescent, developmental: erderly
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Depositing User: Karolina Vranješ
Date Deposited: 18 Feb 2015 14:27
Last Modified: 03 Mar 2015 11:11

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